Summer 2014: Self-Advocacy Edition

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Self-advocacy and AT: Early Opportunities for Independence


Gayl Bowser reflects on how she came to know the importance of student self-advocacy

Gayl Bowser
When Eliza Anderson, AT Program News editor, asked me to write about my perspectives on self-advocacy, I started by asking myself, “When did I first start thinking about self-advocacy? What impact did it have on my approach to education?”  I realized my interest in self-advocacy began when I started my first teaching job in an isolated rural setting.  I want to tell you about that first teaching experience because it led me to important lessons about my students’ self-advocacy and it helped shape my work for years to come.

I was a resource room teacher in a small rural community in the south. When I took the position I received guidance with setting up the program and was assigned students the first day of school. I knew that getting to know my students would be an important first step for our classes and many of the activities and lessons during the first weeks were aimed at helping them feel comfortable talking with me about their lives, their disabilities and their hopes and dreams.  For this reason I felt I was on the right track when, right away, nine-year-old Alvin piped up as we got out our reading books.  “Ms. Bowser, how come we have to learn to read?”  

I explained to Alvin that you have to read to grow up, get a job, find out what is happening in the world, and to be a good citizen.  Alvin’s response was direct and to the point.  “Do not!  My daddy can’t read and he is a house painter.  My momma can’t read and she knows everything that happens in this county.  My grandpa can’t read and he’s on the town council!”

Eventually I did come up with some reasons to read that were good enough for Alvin and, in fact, he would learn to read.  But first he taught me an important lesson about self-agency and self-advocacy. Alvin never took on a learning assignment without first agreeing to it, and he wouldn’t agree to it if he didn’t know what it would mean to him. Indeed, Alvin seemed to have had an innate sense of who he was, where he wanted to go and what he needed to get there.  

Through the years, however, I saw that many of my students weren’t so naturally self-directed.  They waited for adults to choose for them. They assumed adults would help and we did.  Often, adults who worked with students with disabilities wouldn’t even ask if they wanted help and so sometimes they got too much. Then, as a teacher, and as an inclusion consultant and, eventually, as the State of Oregon’s Specialist in Assistive Technology, I noticed that some of the kids I worked with finished school using assistive technology and kept using that technology to become successful independent adults.  Others—with very similar disabilities and similar AT—struggled to maintain even a basic level of self-direction.  I often wondered what made the difference.

In the mid-1990s I got the chance to find out.  The Oregon Technology Access Program (OTAP) was invited to partner with Oregon Health Sciences University for a grant-funded project sponsored by the Federal Office of Special Education Programs.  Project Tech Trans investigated why some people who had used AT successfully in high school kept using their AT as adults; while others put the devices they used in school in a closet or attic and never got them out again. What we learned in that project affected the AT work I have done ever since. It also took me back to my classroom days with Alvin and other students I have known.

Project Tech Trans (Fried-Oken et al., 1998) showed that the essential ingredient was—yes—self-advocacy skills. Adults who continued to use their AT after high school demonstrated skills such as:
  • Choice making:  “I choose whom to invite to my planning meetings.”
  • Decision making: “I know how to make an informed decision.”
  • Problem solving: “I have completed a portfolio that contains important names, numbers, and email addresses.”
  • Goal setting:  “I know how to share my goals with others.”
  • Evaluation:  “I can describe my strengths and needs.”
Just being able to choose or problem solve wasn’t enough.  Self-advocacy involves independent action, the ability to do what you can on your own and to ask for help when you can’t.  Alvin was a natural self-advocate at the age of nine.  Other individuals need instruction.  But self-advocacy skills can be learned.

The first time you meet Emma, for example, you might think she can’t self advocate.  Emma needs personal care for eating, hygiene and positioning. She uses a power wheelchair, augmentative communication and a single-switch scanning device to operate her computer.  All of her devices must go with her everywhere for her to be independent in her school work, her communication and her vocational program.  But the folks at home don’t use those tools, and so sometimes they forget to send a device or one of its parts to school with her in the morning.  When she doesn’t have all her equipment, Emma can’t do her work.  And she wants to work!  

Project Tech Trans found that there are self-advocacy skills that are directly related to the use of AT. Successful adults who use AT are good at tasks like these:
  • AT choice making: “I know about the specific AT that I need and I choose the system that works best in my life.”
  • AT decision making: “I know when to use AT and when to use another accommodation.”
  • AT problem solving: “I know how to get help when my AT is not working properly.”
  • AT goal setting: “I view assistive technology as a tool, not a solution to accomplishing my goals.”
  • AT self-evaluation.  “I can describe my strengths and barriers related to using AT.”
Fortunately, Emma’s teachers have taught her general self-advocacy skills and these have led to some impressive AT problem solving. On her own, Emma now makes sure she has her devices so she can be independent at school (AT Goal Setting). She has learned to keep track of what goes in her backpack in the morning as she gets ready for school, and she knows if her AAC device is connected to her wheelchair before she leaves the house (AT Self-evaluation).  Emma knows that if any of the six parts of her system are missing she needs to do something.  If there is a missing part, she points to the place it is kept and vocalizes.  If nobody notices, she makes louder sounds and bigger hand motions until someone pays attention and gets her AT.  Emma has learned to “holler” until she has the things she needs to take to school. Project Tech Trans found that the more the individual is able to advocate for their own AT use, the more likely it is that AT will be considered a valued and empowering tool for goal achievement. Likely, Emma’s devices will accompany her long after high school.

It is critical to help individuals learn to be self-advocates for their AT use as early as possible. I think we should start helping kids figure out how they do that on the same day we give them their first AT device. If they learn AT self-management and independence at the same time as they learn the operation and functional use of the technology, AT becomes an integrated part of everyday life and routines. The earlier AT self-advocacy is addressed, the more likely it is that AT will make a difference for the independent adults we hope they will become.

Gayl Bowser's work as an independent consultant focuses on the integration of technology into the educational programs and lives of people with disabilities.  (gaylbowser@aol.com)

BlueAssist: Tools for Self-Advocacy and Inclusive Communities

 

Here's a community-building initiative that's gaining ground around the globe!


Blue Assist Dare to ConnectBlue Assist is a global effort to support self-advocacy and create caring communities that are more responsive to individuals with cognitive and communication challengesIt takes the "safe routes to school" concept and combines it with the universality of the wheelchair icon to promote a new symbol for asking for help. Partnered with awareness and outreach efforts, the BlueAssist symbol helps individuals with intellectual, cognitive, and communication challenges to ask assistance from passers-by. In this way, BlueAssist may soon improve how community members look out for one another, and research suggests it may provide significant cost savings in the process.

The BlueAssist concept was first launched as a graduate student's project in Belgium in 2007. It started as a symbol for use with low-tech communication aids--cards with different help messages--to assist users when out and about in their communities. BlueAssist is now a Belgium-based non profit, and its approach has expanded to include mobile apps with features useful for staying on task, safe, and connected to caregivers. An app version was tested with day programs and other institutions in Belgium and the Netherlands in 2010 and 2011, and was refined and tested on a larger scale with the support of the Belgian government in 2012 and 2013. Today, individuals with disabilities are trained with these low and high-tech BlueAssist tools to engage community members for assistance. In BlueAssist parlance, they are empowered by their expanding "interdependence."
 

The Movement Grows


In the Netherlands and Belgium, the BlueAssist symbol is becoming integrated within public transportation and government services as well as other designated BlueAssist-friendly spaces (such as partnering businesses). Indeed, Belgium has officially recognized BlueAssist as a social innovation; as of 2013 the city of Ostend is encouraging the whole community to embrace BlueAssist, and Genk and Kortrijk will soon follow. Recently the BlueAssist app, and its companion apps (collectively referred to as "Cloudina"), were made available for use by anyone (not just institutions) in Google Play and iTunes. In this way, BlueAssist is a top-down and bottom-up social movement driven, in part, by assistive technology.

According to Sandy Hanebrink, Executive Director of Touch the Future Inc. (U.S. distributor of Cloudina), the BlueAssist app currently has over 2,000 users worldwide. Beyond Belgium and the Netherlands, BlueAssist is in Canada, the U.K., Spain, Germany, Israel, and Qatar. In the U.S., BlueAssist has initiatives in Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina, New York, North Dakota and South Dakota and soon in Missouri, Florida, New Jersey, California, and Oregon. Shortly, she reports, BlueAssist is also coming to Portland, Maine. The University of New England is piloting Portland as a BlueAssist community to create BlueAssist-friendly spaces, and plans are underway to pilot the Cloudina apps with adults in a Portland day program.

In the U.S., BlueAssist interest may also soon grow due to Senator Schumer's proposal for Avonte's Law. The law honors the memory of the 14-year-old boy from Queens, New York who went missing from school grounds last October (and was later found dead). Avonte Oquendo, like many children with autism, was prone to wander. If passed, Avonte's Law would finance optional electronic tracking devices to be worn by children with autism. "The tragedy has highlighted the need for both safer communities and a way for some parents to find their children before they get too far," Hanebrink notes. "Blue Assist can provide both."

 

Powerful--Simple--Apps


Indeed, the Android version of the Cloudina Phone app (a companion app to BlueAssist) includes an optional, secure, GPS tracking feature. The option allows authorized contacts to find an app's user by sending them a text. It also enables a user to send his or her location (to authorized contacts only) with just the tap of a finger.

The feature can work in concert with the BlueAssist app. BlueAssist displays the Help icon with messages customized to a user's anticipated needs (i.e. "Can you call my coach and tell them I need help?"). And it integrates a call button programmed to a support person's phone number. The messages are displayed for sharing with community members, but the app can also read messages aloud using synthesized speech. Combined with the Phone app's GPS tracking capability, these are powerful tools for safety and autonomy. For users who can benefit, the BlueAssist app may be programmed for dialing 911, and the Phone app can authorize 911 to find the user's GPS location. Hanebrink says some users create a BlueAssist message for 911 that gives them peace of mind. And thanks to the app's synthetic read aloud feature, users can deliver the message directly and autonomously over the phone (i.e. "This is a 911 call from John Doe, a BlueAssist user, who is unable to communicate. Please send a text to (555) 555-5555 to get John's GPS location and send emergency services. John's emergency contact is Jane and can be reached at (555) 555-5556").


Who Benefits


The Cloudina apps are most commonly used with adults with intellectual challenges, such as Down syndrome and autism, but Hanebrink feels the potential reach is broader. The technology is appealing to job coaches, residential programs, adult day programs, and schools because it increases independence through community as well as remote caregiver support. "With the apps, users have learned to independently navigate public transportation. They are less reliant on special transportation services or on their coaches, which is a huge cost savings." Programs in Europe, she says, are reducing their waiting lists and serving more clients. "This movement benefits everyone. It's why it's taking off. We're creating safer more inclusive communities for individuals with disabilities, for students, for seniors. People are gaining independence and a better quality of life. Programs that support individuals are saving transportation dollars. It's win-win all around."


About the apps (Android and iOS)


Blue Assist screenshot shows the message: I need some help. Please, could you call my coach. Thank you. And displays the green call button. Cloudina BlueAssist is the full version of the BlueAssist app. It includes:
  • The ability to create multiple help messages, each labeled by an identifying image or symbol (should the user not read).
  • Synthetic voice options for reading messages aloud (speech generation).
  • An integrated call button programmed to dial a designated support person.
  • An interface with only two levels for ease of use.
  • Adjustable font size.
The app is available for a 30 day free trial and charges $12/month thereafter unless bundled with additional Cloudina apps ($16/month for the complete package).

Cloudina Phone is a simple to use phone book app with unique features for users with cognitive challenges.
  • Name or picture-labeled contacts, one per page, with call button.
  • Swipe pages to browse contacts or view grid of contact options (if 8 or less).
  • Secure GPS tracking. Allows the user to send their GPS location to a specific contact if lost. Designated contacts may also locate a user by sending a text message even if the user does not initiate communication. An Android-only feature.
  • Each contact's hours of availability may be programmed into the app (preventing calls at midnight, for example).
  • Adjustable font size.
  • One level interface for ease of use.
The app is available for a 30 day free trial and charges $12/month thereafter unless bundled with additional Cloudina apps ($16/month for the complete package).

BlueAssist Lite (free for Android or iOS)
  • Displays the Blue Assist icon with one fixed "help" message (available in several languages).
  • The ability to create and customize one additional message.
  • An integrated "call" button that is programmed so a community member can dial a designated support person for assistance.
  • There are three symbols to choose from for use with the custom message to help the user identify the subject of their message if they do not read (a question symbol, a shopping cart symbol, and a bus symbol).
Also explore the Cloudina Photo Album and Cloudina Calendar apps! These may be used for creating schedules, programming reminders, and accomplishing tasks.
 
Visit the Blue Assist website
Get the Blue Assist Campaign Flyer (PDF)
Download the Blue Assist card template (low-tech approach, PDF)


A version of this article first appeared in the MassMATCH News Quarterly

How 'Ya Gonna Keep 'Em Down on the Farm ...


Insights from the life and career of Utah Self-Advocate Gordon Richins


Gordon Richins
Gordon Richins bristles when he hears people use the phrase, "confined to a wheelchair." 

"I'm not confined,” he says. “It gives me liberation. I get in and go." 

His power chair, he points out, is just another form of transportation, and one he's relied on since recovering from an unplanned confrontation with a hay bale in 1987. Rather than confined, Gordon has taken his chair far--from life as a "grumpy dairy farmer" ("which had to do with the 3:30 a.m. alarm clock," he says) to life with considerably wider horizons as a national disability advocate. 

Indeed, since the accident, there have been fewer cows, more and different people, and experiences that have combined to recover his spirit. 

“I became a nicer person,” he says. “You can ask my wife.”

His transformation started in college. Following rehab and two years at home, Gordon attended Utah State University (USU) through Idaho Vocational Rehabilitation. It was the early (and pre-Internet) 1990s, and there he earned a BS in Agricultural Business. That experience introduced him to living as a more social person, attending classes and learning from others as well as how to "peck around on a 286 with 40 MB RAM using a mouth stick (there was no mouse back then)."

With his college degree and new penchant for spending time with people, Gordon made an excellent candidate for an AmeriCorps VISTA position at OPTIONS for Independence, northern Utah's Center for Independent Living. The USU Disability Resource Center urged him to apply. There he worked for two years as a VISTA and discovered the world of disability advocacy as well as a broader sense of identity within the movement. "It was a great experience," he reflects. "After OPTIONS, I really felt like a member of the disability community." 

When the VISTA position concluded, however, Gordon spent six months unemployed. Then he spied a job listing for a Consumer Liaison at the USU Center for Persons with Disabilities (CPD). "I can do that," he thought. The rest is CPD history. 

Gordon has now worked as the CPD’s Consumer Liaison for nearly two decades, helping to educate the community about resources and opportunities for persons with disabilities and reaching out to and connecting with individuals who can benefit. He assists the CPD's Consumer Advisory Council, which is made up of five self-advocates, five parent/family advocates and five agency advocates from across the state. 

The CPD is part of the nationwide network of University Centers for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities (UCEDD). Representing the CPD, Gordon also serves as a national advocate on the Council on Community Advocacy (COCA), a part of the UCEDD network. There he spent six years as a COCA Person with a Disability Co-Chair, and as a board member for the Association of University Centers on Disability (AUCD).  Gordon's advocacy work on a national level has additionally extended to participation with NCIL (the National Council on Independent Living) and APRIL (the Association of Programs for Rural Independent Living).
 
Not surprisingly, Gordon’s responsibilities with so many organizations have landed him a frequent flyer. In addition to traveling regularly in and out of state for meetings and conferences, Gordon and his chair have traveled as far as Puerto Rico and American Samoa. "I'm fortunate," he reflects. "Not everyone gets these opportunities. Indeed, I know many who don't."

Traveling this extensively, Gordon has collected a few war stories … like the time Delta Airlines damaged his power chair's electronics and rendered it a 350 lbs. manual push. In the past, such a breakdown would have seriously impeded his productivity. Now, he says, with help from the UATP reuse program he has a backup power chair for such events. He can also go years without a problem thanks to the preventive maintenance provided by the UATP Assistive Technology Lab. (The Utah Assistive Technology Program is a program of the USU CPD.)
Man seated in power chair as a woman works on the front wheel with a drill.
Libby Higham works on Gordon Richins' power wheelchair at the CPD's Assistive Technology Lab.

Looking back, Gordon marvels at how far assistive technology has come since his accident in 1987. No longer reliant on a mouth stick for typing, he uses the voice recognition software, Dragon NaturallySpeaking.

"I wish I'd had THAT in college!" he says.
 
He commutes to work in a van that he can roll directly into without a lift and that receives and locks his wheels securely. At home he has power door openers and control of the lights, air conditioner, and various consumer electronics via remote control.

Over the years, Gordon and the CPD have learned a lot from each other. Lessons include how to retrofit the university's fire-magnet system (that closes all doors in the event of an emergency) to insure Gordon can still exit his office. He spearheaded a workgroup that deployed three additional technologies and a back-up generator. He has also learned how to be an effective advocate for individuals with developmental disabilities, and learn from those experiences that are outside of his own. 

Indeed, working as a self-advocate--addressing problems and barriers one experiences first-hand--is clearly made more satisfying when it also informs advocacy work of benefit to others, and when it can intersect with communities from which you have a chance to learn. "It's a two-way street," he emphasizes. Gordon roots his satisfaction with this aspect of his work in a story from childhood: "There was a boy I used to play with who lived next door. He was my age but come time for starting school, he wasn't there. My mother told me they don't let boys like him go to school. It felt wrong, and it was wrong."

Today Gordon still lives on his family farm, and he loves rural life. "I just prefer my cows for dinner."
 

Don't Limit Me!

a powerful video message from Megan Bomgaars

YouTube screen shot shows young girl with Down Syndrome gesturing with caption that reads, "Don't limit me by making me your class mascot."

Generation Tech! Finding the Hidden Treasures in Read&Write Gold

Maddy Reynolds smiling holding out her fists with "believer" spelled across the fingers.

11th-grader Maddy Reynolds shares how she works best


Just like a carpenter needs a variety of tools to complete jobs to their best potential, so do educators and students. One such tool is Read&Write Gold. In 2011 the Assistive Technology Trainer in my school came to brainstorm ideas with me. Due to my physical disability, he thought that it would help if we worked together to find ways to get my work done as efficiently as possible. He began by showing me how Read&Write Gold can work for me. I have now been using this literacy software for three years and wish I’d learned about it earlier in my education.

Throughout middle school I used a Fusion word processor. It was useful because it was portable, fit perfectly on the desk and the keys were the same size as those on a school computer keyboard. The Fusion also had spell check which I used a lot.
Fusion portable keyboard.
Then, when I got into high school, Read&Write Gold was on every computer and laptop in our building. Using it would eliminate the need to have to carry the Fusion around with me in my backpack. It also has features the Fusion lacked. Once I learned to use it, I really loved it.
Read&Write Gold logo with play button
Unlike the Fusion, Read&Write Gold allows me to listen to what I write. And because it is software on a computer connected to the Internet, it helps me when I do research. Indeed, Read&Write Gold has helped me to conquer some challenges.

One of them is being able to type without making too many spelling errors to correct later. That is because, in addition to spell check, Read&Write Gold has a Word Prediction function. This is a crystal ball in the toolbar that, once selected, offers a menu of words I’m likely to write next (up to one word ahead). Since typing can be difficult for me, it cuts down on the amount of keystrokes I need to make.
Word Prediction icon
The Word Prediction tool can also be used with the Read Aloud [Text to Speech] tool. Read Aloud means I can hear the words it is predicting and know if I am choosing the right word even if I am unsure of the spelling. I am an auditory learner so hearing the words makes it much easier to complete my writing and editing.
Green arrow
The Read Aloud icon, which is a green arrow that says “Play,” also allows me to listen to what I write. I usually type up one paragraph, then go back to listen to it. When I catch mistakes, I fix them. Read Aloud highlights one sentence at a time, and that helps me keep my place as I follow along. This makes it easier to edit at the end when I review my work all the way through. I am visually impaired and I have difficulty reading and keeping my place. It allows me to edit my writing to the best of my ability.  

Another way I use the Read Aloud feature is for my research on the Internet. When I find an article or website I want to use in my projects or classwork, sometimes the font is very tiny and the Web pages may be cluttered with a lot of pictures. Using Read&Write Gold, I can highlight the text and this tool will read it aloud to me, again highlighting the words as it reads them.

Also, while I’m listening and reading, I can make a list of vocabulary words. This is another tool called Vocabulary Builder, which helps me to learn. The icon is three dots and dashes.
Vocabulary list builder icon
When I click on it, I can type in vocabulary words. It then makes a list that includes a picture of the word, all the definitions and a place to make comments. This is helpful because if I want to remember where I found this word, or how it was used, I can type a note to myself in the comment column.

One more tool I’d like to point out is Voice Note, which is a microphone icon.
Voice Note icon
If I want to make a rough draft, or take notes, I have the option of recording myself. It’s a simple press of a “record” button. Once my voice is recorded, I can then insert the audio file into a Word document if I need to or even attach it in an email to my teacher.

These are just a few tools that I use in my classes. Using Read&Write Gold, I have grown as a writer, reader and self-editor, and most importantly, I’ve gained independence as a student. I no longer need someone to read my work back to me.

Read&Write Gold takes about a week or two to learn what it has to offer. In the beginning, the software’s toolbar looks overwhelming and confusing with lots of different icons. Start out slow and take your time. There are many tools to choose from, more than what I've explained here. Work with your Assistive Technology Trainer or educator in your school and they will help you. Once you get the hang of how to use this software, you will be amazed at how easy it is. Read&Write Gold not only serves students with disabilities, it can also help all students (and educators) access different ways to succeed in their classrooms across the curriculum. It can help anyone to be a better writer, listener and researcher.

[Editor's Note: Check out the free online Read&Write Gold ToolMatcher for help matching tools to user.] 

Have feedback for Maddy on her article? Email ATPN  (and we'll be sure she gets it).

Generation Tech is a standing column of AT Program News featuring student writing about the technology they know and love, or student work empowered by technology (and insights from their educators).

Learn more about Generation Tech
 
Reminder: AT Program News makes no endorsement, representation, or warranty expressed or implied for any product, device, or information set forth in this newsletter or on its Web site. AT Program News has not examined, reviewed, or tested any product or device referred to.

Telling Your Story: There's an App for that!

 

An app for self-advocacy from the Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities


Ionic columns.

Compose and practice a personal story to present to elected public officials or other policy makers. The Telling Your Story app is for persons with disabilities, family members, and other advocates interested in seeking policy changes or raising awareness about disability issues. It provides numerous example stories by real people and provides a step-by-step process for a user to create his or her own testimony.

Free for iPad in iTunes

Advocacy Needed! CMS Changes Rules Regarding Speech Generating Devices

 

An update from Amy Goldman and the Medicare Implementation Team

Amy Goldman
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has changed its rules regarding speech generating devices (SGDs), also known as voice output communication aids for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).  Effective April 1, 2014, Medicare beneficiaries for whom an SGD has been recommended will be renting the devices for thirteen months in a program known as "capped rental".  After thirteen months, the device belongs to the individual. This change does not affect the SLP evaluation or report requirements (for more information on report requirements, go to www.aac-rerc.com).

This change, however, can and will affect some Medicare recipients and their families, specifically, anyone who is admitted to a hospital, nursing home or hospice during the 13 month rental period.  The Medicare Act prohibits Medicare payment for items of durable medical equipment (DME) to persons who are in-patients in hospitals, or are receiving hospice services (at home or in a facility) or are residents of nursing facilities (NF)s.

Source and for more information: visit this
Patient Provider Communication webpage

In another development, in February, CMS issued a "Coverage Reminder" for SGDs, in which they announced the requirement that SGD manufacturers submit coding verification that their products do not have capability beyond speech generation.  If this is not submitted, devices will be excluded from Medicare reimbursement after September 1, 2014.   This reverses the practice since 2001, when SGDs were first approved as durable medical equipment by CMS, of allowing devices to be sold with other functionality "locked", but with the capability of being subsequently "unlocked" by the recipient (for a non-Medicare paid fee).  According to Lew Golinker, Assistive Technology Law Center, there is no information about what brought SGDs to the attention of CMS staff, and the policy changes will not generate any cost savings to Medicare.  Rather, there are significant costs that will be born by SGD companies who have to "undue" capabilities engineered into the existing products.  Manufacturers, practitioners, individuals who need/use SGDs, ASHA, USSAAC and other advocacy groups have, to date, been unsuccessful in convincing CMS to change its position.

Amy S. Goldman is a member of the Medicare Implementation Team. The Team is a small group of clinicians, researchers, educators and advocates who, between 1999 and 2001, helped Medicare staff develop the current SGD coverage criteria and, subsequently, address other issues related to Medicare recipients’ access to SGDs. It was recently reconvened to address the 2014 Medicare rule changes.

Next up:
AT and the New Common Core Assessments!

Person typing at a desktop computer.
AT Program News is interested in learning about (and reporting on) the new generation of computer-based assessments: their built-in tools, their interoperability with AT (including student and educator experiences to date), implications for the AT industry, advice for parents, and more. Have an idea, insight, or article?Contact ATPN
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. Content may be reproduced for non-commercial uses!
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